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Energy and power plant technology, innovative power plant designs

Block K7 in Kladno brown coal power plant (Czech Republic)

As general contractor, Kraftanlagen München completed a 135 MW combined heat and power generation unit at the Kladno brown coal power plant near Prague, taking the project from the planning stage right through to handover in just three-and-a-half years. 

Stricter ecological regulations of the EU necessitate the modernisation of the oldest of the three blocks at the site. The new technology lowers the emissions below the limit values applicable from 2016 onwards – even under the challenging conditions of faster and more frequent load change for a solid fuel fired power plant. The combination of modern combustion engineering and storage technologies in the water-steam cycle enables a load change rate of three percent per minute. By means of combined heat and power generation, the plant also generates district heating in addition to power, hence contributing to efficient use of the brown coal primary fuel. The co-combustion of biomass can replace up to ten percent of brown coal, thus further improving the CO₂ balance. In order to modernise the existing power plant complex during ongoing operation, not only new buildings but also numerous conversions and relocations of components were needed in a very confined space.

Quickly controllable

The increasing use of photovoltaic systems and wind for power generation also increases the need for fossil power plants with high control speed, large load range and fast startup and shutdown times. Suitably designed and coordinated, coal-fired power plants can be used in normal mains operation. In addition to the right selection of the boiler as well as an intelligent steam and condensate management system, the knowledge of the dynamic characteristics of the individual components is an important prerequisite. The load limits of components, especially steam lines, must also be taken into account. Kraftanlagen München has many years of know-how in the calculation of piping systems. We configure corresponding power plant models in software and simulate and optimise both the dynamics and the achievable control speed of the intended switching system as early as the planning stage.


Net system service provider
K7 is designed for the following conditions for participating in the balancing energy market:

  • - primary mains standby mode with a droop of 8 %. The block must be capable of providing 6.7 MW in 30 s upon a frequency change of + 0.2 Hz.
  • secondary mains standby mode according to defined test cycle (CEPS test SR) with a control speed of 4 MW/min. Load change of + 40 MW (30 %) in 10 min.
  • tertiary mains standby mode, i.e. the load change from minimum to maximum within 30 min.
  • Voltage control and reactive power consumption
  • Island mode

Good market prospects
With the Kladno K7 block, the operator takes over a highly flexible power plant that can be used for mains system services in large load ranges and also provides district and process heat at the same time. Well positioned for the growing balancing market.

Controlling costs
How is it possible – in just three and a half years from order placement to commencing commercial operation – to realise a 135 MW power plant and still remain in budget? Not least with excellent project management. During the Kladno project, with an order volume of around 260 million Euro, Kraftanlagen München has demonstrated that it is proficient in the entire process from engineering through to handover.

Licensing procedure
The performance of the contract began with a multi-stage licensing procedure. For the five main approval steps, partial approvals had to be obtained from up to 17 offices – from the environmental and health authorities, fire brigade, aviation services, railways, military, etc., engineering and execution needed to be precisely coordinated with each other. Less than three months after order placement came the first demolition approval for the excavator. During a project process with a very tight schedule, it was important to include the authorities in every important step all the way to obtaining the operating permit.

An international team
As general contractor, Kraftanlagen München was also responsible on-site for the coordination of all major components, construction site management, occupational safety and quality assurance. 60 international subcontractors were involved in the realisation of Kladno K7. The number of assembly personnel participating in the overall project amounted to a total of 6,500 persons who expended around two million hours of installation. At peak times, up to 800 persons were busy on the construction site at the same time.

Starting on time
The experts from Kraftanlagen München also took the lead in commissioning the plant. It was concluded with extensive system tests and acceptance by the customer at the end of December 2013.

The customer confirmed:
No power plant project of comparable size has been realised in recent decades in the Czech Republic with so much success.

Fact sheet

Alpiq Generation (CZ) s.r.o.

Period of execution:  
05/2010 – 01/2014

Plant parameters:

  • Electrical power performance: 135 MW
  • District heating extraction: 70 MW (max. 105 MW)
  • Live steam parameters: 105 kg/s, 133.3 bar, 541 °C
  • Reheat system: 34 bar; 541°C
  • Thermal furnace performance: 326 MW

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